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The concept of forest management, which was originally based on sustainable timber production, has now developed into the concept of sustainable forest management (PHL) with regard to the production continuous flow of desired forest ecosystem products and services with reduction of undesirable effects on the physical and social environment (ITTO 1992). From this understanding it can be said that the implementation of PHL is expected to maintain forest sustainability and the benefits it can provide for present and future generations. The concept of PHL continues to develop along with the increasing awareness and understanding on the importance of forest resources, as well as encouragement from various parties who demand sustainable development by maintaining a balance of ecological, social, and economic aspects which later become the principles and benchmarks in the assessment of PHL (Pratama and Maryudi 2021, Djamal et al. 2018).
The principle of ecological, social, and economic sustainability have been developed as a measuring tool by several forest certification schemes, either mandatory or voluntary. Since 2009, for example, Indonesia has developed a Timber Legality Assurance System (SVLK) which is currently being transformed into a Legality and Sustainability Assurance System (SVLK, under Regulation of Minister of Environment and Forestry No. 8/2021). SVLK consists of Sustainable Forest Management Certification (S-PHL) and Timber Legality Certification (S-Legalitas) which are mandatory for log producers and their processing industries. However, only S-Legalitas is required for holders of social forestry permits with the Community Plantation Forest (HTR) scheme, private forest owners, IPK (timber utilization permit) holders, owners of legality for the use of timber forest products, and the downstream timber sector (Regulation of Minister of Environment and Forestry No.21/2020).
Several voluntary forest certification schemes currently implemented in Indonesia are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) which are global certification schemes (Kartika et al. 2020), and the Indonesian Ecolabelling Institute (LEI) which was the first initiator of forest and timber certification in Indonesia (Wibowo et al. 2015). Similar to the SVLK, the FSC, PEFC, and LEI certification schemes have systems and standards for sustainable production forest management and chain of custody.
Forest Management, Timber, SVLK, Forest Certification.